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Abstract Optical coherence tomography OCT is a promising research tool for brain imaging and developmental biology. Serving as a three-dimensional optical biopsy technique, OCT provides volumetric reconstruction of brain tissues and embryonic structures with micrometer resolution and video rate imaging speed. Functional OCT enables label-free monitoring of hemodynamic and metabolic changes in the brain in vitro and in vivo in animal models. Due HAMA M520 Optical Mouse its non-invasiveness nature, OCT enables longitudinal imaging of developing specimens in vivo without potential damage from surgical operation, tissue fixation and processing, and staining with exogenous contrast agents.

In this paper, various OCT applications in brain imaging and developmental biology are reviewed, with a particular focus on imaging heart development. In addition, we report findings on the effects of a circadian gene Clock and high-fat-diet on heart development in Drosophila melanogaster. These findings contribute to our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms connecting circadian genes and obesity to heart development and cardiac diseases. Biological systems, Biomedical optical imaging, Brain, Cardiovascular system and Optical tomography I. OCT imaging is analogous to ultrasound B-mode imaging, measuring echo time delay of backscattered light.

Instead of direct measurement of time delay of reflected photons, OCT uses low coherence interferometry to map out back-scattering properties from different depths of samples. OCT is able to provide in situ and in vivo images of tissue morphology with a resolution approaching that of conventional histology, but without the need to excise or process specimens. Currently, OCT has been widely used clinically in ophthalmology [ 4 — 10 ], cardiology [ 11 — 15 ], endoscopy [ 16 — 23 ], dermatology [ 24 — 29 ] and oncology [ 24 — 29 ].


In recent years, there has been HAMA M520 Optical Mouse growing need for high-speed, high-resolution optical imaging modalities for neuroimaging and developmental biology. Recent development of high speed and ultrahigh resolution OCT technologies [ 30 — 33 ] makes it possible to reveal fast dynamics and cellular features of the brain and developing embryos.

These benefits, combined with label-free and non-invasive imaging capabilities, HAMA M520 Optical Mouse becomes an attractive research tool for scientists working in these research fields. OCT has been demonstrated as a promising neuroimaging tool [ 34 — 36 ]. OCT enables non-invasive visualization of structures and functionality of the brain, which is valuable for fundamental research and medical diagnosis. OCT reveals fine structural details of brain tissues with the capability to resolve individual neurons and myelinated fibers [ 34 ].

Both structural and functional information provided by HAMA M520 Optical Mouse has been utilized to study brain diseases, such as brain tumors [ 35 ] and stroke [ 36 ]. In developmental biology, OCT has been used to characterize morphological and functional development of organs, such as eyes [ 39 ], brain [ 40 ], limbs [ 41 ], reproductive organs [ 42 ] and the heart [ 114043 — 45 ]. The embryonic heart especially, undergoes significant morphological and functional changes during development.


Traditionally, structural changes of the developing heart were evaluated based on histological slides using standard light microscope. OCT is able to provide micron-scale resolution images of cardiac morphology and functionality in vivo without the need for heart dissection and processing. Moreover, OCT imaging is non-invasive, enabling longitudinal studies of the HAMA M520 Optical Mouse heart. To date, OCT has been used extensively to study heart development in various animal models, including Xenopus [ 11 HAMA M520 Optical Mouse, zebrafish [ 40 ], chicken and quail [ 43 ], mouse [ 44 ] and Drosophila [ 45 ].

In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of OCT applications for brain imaging and developmental biology. We had previously shown that a circadian clock gene, Cry, plays an essential role in heart morphogenesis and function [ 45 ].

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We observed that changes in the expression of dClock resulted in cardiac dysfunction at various developmental stages of the fly. Moreover, obesity is associated with many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases [ 4647 ]. Previous studies showed that high-fat-diet HFD induces metabolic and transcriptional response in Drosophila [ 48 ].

Here we report the effect of HAMA M520 Optical Mouse on heart development in Drosophila. Functional MRI fMRI measures hemodynamic changes associated with local neuronal activity and is widely used to study functional correlations of different brain regions [ 49 — 51 ].

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However, limited spatial and temporal resolutions of these imaging modalities prohibit their utility to HAMA M520 Optical Mouse fast neural activities at cellular levels. Microelectrode arrays, electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography directly measure electronic signals originated from neural activities [ 52 — 57 ]. However, these methods have low spatial resolution and are susceptible to electrical noises and motion artifacts [ 5859 ].

Optical imaging, such as confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy, has been widely used in neuroscience to study neural activities at the cellular level [ 60 — 62 ]. Confocal and two-photon microscopies utilize fluorescence contrast mostly from exogenous dyes to measure neuron morphology and distribution [ 63 ], ion concentration [ 64 ] and HAMA M520 Optical Mouse release [ 65 ], cerebral blood flow and angiograms [ 6667 ]. OCT offers a complementary method for neuroimaging.

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Based solely on intrinsic optical contrast originating in the brain, OCT can distinguish various brain structures, such as corpus callosum and hippocampus [ 6869 ], and reveal individual neurons and myelinated fibers [ 34 ]. Polarization-sensitive OCT PS-OCT was utilized to localize nerve fiber bundles, characterize fiber bundle orientations, and obtain optical tractography of the brain [ 7071 ]. Based on detection of Doppler shift and light scattering changes, OCT can be used to measure cerebral blood flow and obtain angiograms in vivo [ 367273 ]. Spectroscopic OCT has been recently developed to HAMA M520 Optical Mouse cerebral blood oxygenation in live animals [ 74 ]. Combining blood flow and oxygen saturation measurements enables direct measurement of cerebral metabolism rate of oxygen CMRO2 [ 37 ].

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